## Abstract

Albert Einstein defined gravity in his general theory of relativity as the curvature of four-dimensional spacetime. The flaw in the operation of such gravity is, among other things, that it could not operate on its own without an additional gravity force, which would be necessary to set the planets rolling on the curved trampoline of the Cosmos. This results from his description of the mechanism of operation of such gravity.

Einstein also questioned Newton’s principle of the simultaneity of gravity. In its place, he introduced gravitational waves propagating at a speed limited to the speed of light, which cannot keep up with the dynamics of the mechanics of the Cosmos.

## 1. Introduction

Albert Einstein questioned Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation. He did this based on an incorrectly formulated equivalence principle for gravity.[i] In place of this law, he proposed a theory of gravity based on the mathematical model of Herman Minkowski, in which gravity is seen as the curvature of four-dimensional spacetime. Einstein believed that it works by a massive body suspended in spacetime, which curves the structure of space, just as a large stone causes a trampoline to curve, affecting the movement of other bodies moving near it.

This reasoning is false because this hypothetical mechanism of gravity would require the action of other forces in space to activate it. The restriction Einstein introduced on the simultaneity of gravity is also incorrect.

## 2. Curvature of four-dimensional spacetime

To support Einstein’s special theory of relativity, his academic teacher, Hermann Minkowski, developed a mathematical model in 1908 of coordinates called four-dimensional spacetime. Einstein initially negatively assessed the scope of the work and the help offered. However, he eventually used Minkowski’s model not for his special theory of relativity but for his general theory of relativity, published in 1915.

How Albert Einstein imagined the mechanism of gravity was briefly presented in the introduction to his book: The Essence of Relativity. The author of this introduction, American physicist Brian Greene, described it this way:

*Einstein argued that, just as a large rock lying on a trampoline causes its material to curve—and thus affects the motion of a ball rolling on top of the trampoline—a large astrophysical body (Earth, the Sun, another star) suspended in spacetime causes the fabric of the cosmos to curve—and thus affects the motion of other bodies moving nearby. As the Earth orbits the Sun, according to general relativity, it rolls along a depression in the curved spacetime caused by the Sun’s presence. [i]*

The model of gravity presented above would have at least some of the following defects:

- Einstein did not indicate the forces under the influence of which massive planets would c
^{1}ause the “fabric of the cosmos” to bend. He also did not explain how the conflicting fabrics of spacetime responsible for the movement of planets and satellites whose orbital planes cross would be integrated. - The free rolling of a planet (ball) on a trampoline’s bent surface is impossible without a force acting in space that activates such rolling for the Earth to start rolling (falling) around the circumference of the bent trampoline of the Sun, another gravity force is needed, which causes the planet to fall along its slope. Many scientists use presentations of such loaded trampoline fabrics in their lectures to explain Einstein’s gravity. They mislead their audience. The fabric deflections they present and balls rolling on their curved surfaces cannot occur without the Earth’s gravity. The same condition must be met in space.
- However, if gravity existed, the source of which would be the rolling of planets on the curved fabric of spacetime, the planes of their orbits would move away from the center of the Sun relatively quickly, and their motion would accelerate significantly as their trajectory lowered on the concave material of the trampoline. At the same time, the radii of the orbits would gradually decrease.

The curvature of four-dimensional spacetime is not gravity. However, if it could act like Einstein described, it would probably lead to disastrous consequences in the Cosmos.

## 3. Simultaneity of Gravity

Einstein often introduced findings from special relativity into general relativity. This included the relativity of simultaneity of events and findings concerning the properties of light. His position on these phenomena in gravity is contained in the following quote:

*Unlike Newton’s theory, in which gravity supposedly exerts a force instantaneously at any distance, in general relativity, the force of gravity travels precisely at the speed of light, per the central principle of special relativity that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. [i]*

Einstein did not have any research to back up his statement that gravity travels at the speed of light or slower. Although there are many things we do not understand, we know from both modern scientific observations and historical knowledge that there is a repeating continuity of events in the Universe. It works like a perfect machine whose gears are in constant motion. It can be compared to a complex machine built by man, in which all the drive elements operate simultaneously after it is started. Science identifies such simultaneity mainly by recording the repeatability of the movements of the planets and their satellites in the Solar System, as well as the movement of the Solar System around the Galaxy. Observations of these phenomena have occurred for thousands of years, and the more precise ones for hundreds of years. However, modern research methods indicate that this continuously operating mechanism lasts billions of years.

The parameters of the Solar System and the Milky Way known to science indicate that:

- The mass of the Earth is about 5.9722 ⋅ 1024 kg (almost six quadrillion kilograms), and it moves along the orbit of the Sun at a speed of 107,000 km/H. For gravity to maintain its smooth movement in a constant orbit, its energy must be present immediately at every point of this orbit. It cannot take eight minutes for such energy to reach Earth (the time it takes light to reach the Earth from the Sun).
- The mass of the Sun is 1.9891 · 1030 kg (98% of the mass of the Solar System), which is almost 330,000 times more than the mass of the Earth. On the other hand, the Solar System moves along the orbit of the Galaxy at a speed of about 800,000 km/H. Gravitational waves would take 28,000 years to reach the Sun’s orbit from the center of the Galaxy.[RR1]

It is hard to imagine that the gravitational force holding a planet in orbit would need many minutes, hours or thousands of years to reach every point in the orbit[MJ2] .. [RR3] Even if gravity moved in the way Einstein assumed, it must still simultaneously fill the space of the Cosmos to ensure that at each point where the celestial body moves, gravitational forces appropriate to its mass and the environment in which it found itself will be immediately activated.

## 4. Conclusions

When formulating the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein did not indicate a real and coherent mechanism of the Cosmos, as Newton did. By suggesting that gravity is a curvature of four-dimensional space, he made the following significant errors:

- He did not notice that gravity, which, according to him, was supposed to be a curvature of the structure of the Cosmos by a large astrophysical body, can only operate when another gravity force is in operation, causing the falling circular motion of bodies located on the fabric of the trampoline.
- He also did not notice that gravity, which he considered a curvature of spacetime, would come from potential energy. After its exhaustion (rolling of the planet down the curved trampoline), such gravity would cease to exist.
- He failed to recognize that the hypothetical movement of a planet on the curved fabric of spacetime of a massive celestial body would cause the orbital plane in which it orbits to gradually move away from the center of that body while simultaneously decreasing its radius and accelerating its orbital motion.
- He questioned the simultaneity of gravity in the Universe. In its place, he introduced gravitational waves propagating at a speed limited to the speed of light, which cannot keep up with the dynamics of the Cosmos.

[i] Albert Einstein, *Istota teorii względności*, Poznań 2021, s. 23

[i] Marian Jodlowski, *Curvature of four-dimensional spacetime does not exist*, https://………………………………………………………………………………………………………